Category: Diseases

First aid in case of suffocation: here’s how to react correctly!

You get something tasty, you start chewing and suddenly it happens. You are suffocating and you are out of air. You immediately panic and don’t really know what to do. The same is true for many parents when their children are at risk of suffocation. But what can be done? Below is information on first aid in the event of suffocation.

 

Why can eating food be dangerous?

Basically, you may choke when you eat, for example if the food has not been fully chewed or if there is a bone left in it. But you can’t just choke only while eating. There are many different situations in which a person can choke. The craftsman can swallow the nails he puts in his teeth while he works. Babies can choke on small toys, coins, or marbles. Especially in children, the risk of suffocation is slightly higher.

In children, the airways are still developing and therefore are much narrower and smaller than in an adult. As a result, babies choke much faster. For this reason, young children in particular shouldn’t eat grapes, nuts, or even sweets. In fact, with these foods, small children run the risk of suffocation. You should therefore pay attention to your baby’s nutrition.

Ingestion can be dangerous because the airways are blocked and therefore there is no air. Instead of entering the oesophagus, food enters the windpipe, blocking the flow of air. The situation can become critical after a very short time. A person does not survive long after they stop breathing. The brain is not getting enough oxygen, our blood vessels are not getting oxygen, etc. If so, you don’t have much time before you lose consciousness. In the worst case, there is a risk of death.

But what to do in case of ingestion and suffocation? Usually, people act intuitively and based on the situation. But even here you may be wrong.

 

First aid in case of suffocation: instructions

Adults and young children can suffocate. But there are several approaches to using first aid.

 

In adults

  1. Encourage the person to cough. The blockage could be resolved by expelling the foreign body.
  2. If a simple cough doesn’t solve the problem, you can hit the person on the back several times. It is extremely important to strike between the shoulder blades. Ask the person to lean forward slightly.
  3. If these first aid measures don’t help, you should call an ambulance immediately. Describe the situation and wait for further instructions on the phone.
  4. Heimlich maneuver. If the person is at risk of choking, use the Heimlich maneuver. To do this, stand behind the person and ask them to lean forward slightly. Then put your arms around the person and make a fist between the navel and the breastbone. The other hand wraps around your fist, then start pulling your hands firmly backwards, towards your chest.
  5. If the foreign body still doesn’t come out, perform steps 3 and 4 alternately: first strike on the back and then perform the Heimlich maneuver.

 

In children and infants

  1. Take the baby and sit with him in the chair. Bring your legs together and place the baby face down on your thighs. The chest should be approximately at knee height.
  2. In the next step, hit the middle of the back to eliminate the block.
  3. If this first aid measure doesn’t help, turn the baby over and give a few strokes with your fingertips at chest height.
  4. If the foreign object doesn’t come out, perform steps 2 and 3 alternately. You should also call an ambulance immediately.

 

Note: Are you worried or panicked in an emergency? You aren’t the only one. In emergency situations, we all immediately panic, especially when it comes to our children or loved ones. Our Emergency Taris app can help you in such situations. With the Taris app, the emergency call can be done quickly through the app and you can also request additional help. It is possible to ask for help from qualified medical personnel in the immediate vicinity, in order to guarantee immediate first aid even in the event of suffocation. Did you already know that ambulance takes on average 15 minutes to arrive? You can read more about the Taris app here.

 

How to avoid suffocation?

 

Choking can be avoided. With small children and babies, of course, you have to be careful with food. You should avoid large pieces and, if necessary, chew their food first. You should also avoid giving them foods such as grapes, nuts, and cherry tomatoes.

Adults should chew their food well. When eating food, we recommend that you chew it at least 20-30 times. This way the food is chopped, so that it is easy to swallow. If you eat your food too quickly, it could get stuck. You should also avoid biting your nails or having other objects between your teeth.

 

Other articles:

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  • ABC and ABCDE First Aid: what is it?
  • First aid for vertigo: how to avoid it!

 

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Fever: causes, symptoms and treatment!

When our body is not well, it tries to activate its immune system. One of the most common reactions is a fever. If you have a high temperature, your body is trying to signal that something is wrong. But how does a fever develop and when can it become dangerous? Let’s get to the bottom of these questions.

What causes fever?

As a rule, we humans have a normal body temperature of around 36 °C – 38 °C. The normal body temperature is regulated by our brain. The hypothalamus is responsible for this. This area of the brain makes sure that the body temperature is not too high or too low.
If fever then occurs, it may come from the hypothalamus. The messenger substances that occur during infections or other illnesses can reach the brain and cause the body temperature to rise. The body is confused and has the feeling that 37 °C is too cold and lets the temperature rise. The body does this, for example, with the help of shivering. Because chills are one of the most common symptoms that can occur.
Through the resulting fever, certain processes of our immune system should be activated more quickly and work more quickly. This should then eventually lower the temperature again and fight the infection. This usually takes a few days until you recover from the fever. Here, of course, it depends on how strong and dangerous the infection is.

What temperature defines fever?

In principle, one can assume that one has fever when the temperature is above 38 °C. This is not wrong in principle, but even at 38.1 °C on should not be alarmed immediately. Here we are talking about a slightly raised temperature, which is not further dangerous. Here it is only important to continue to observe the symptoms that develop and the body temperature. With a body temperature of 38.5 °C, a slight fever is assumed. From a body temperature of 39 °C onwards, more symptoms occur, such as chills.

Can a fever be dangerous?

A rise in temperature is not an illness, but also counts as a symptom of other diseases. In principle, fever appears with infections and can then be fought independently. However, it can also become dangerous. At a certain point, even the body’s own immune system can no longer help and needs external support. In addition, from a certain body temperature, fever can lead to the body overheating. This in turn can cause further damage to the body.

When does a fever become dangerous?

From a body temperature of around 40 °C it can become dangerous. The body no longer has control over the infection and the regulation of body temperature. Tissues or organs in the body may be damaged, which can mean long-term consequences. Circulation may also collapse. From a body temperature of around 42 °C, it can also become life-threatening.

Causes

Many people probably wonder how fever occurs. There can be many different causes. As a rule, however, an infection in the body is responsible. From otitis media to influenza, a rise in body temperature can occur with various infections
The most common causes of fever include:

  • Bronchitis
  • Otitis media
  • Influenza
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Pneumonia
  • Appendicitis

In order for the doctor to make the correct diagnosis and find the origin of the infection, the other symptoms are also very important.

Symptoms

With inflammation or infection in the body, other symptoms occur in addition to fever. Here, the symptoms can be completely different. In the case of an infection in the throat area, you have a sore throat or difficulty swallowing. If you suffer from appendicitis, you have pain in your lower abdomen.

When do you need to consult a doctor?

A doctor should be consulted as soon as the body temperature reaches around 40 °C. Before this, you can reduce the fever with any medication from the pharmacy or home remedies. Then, as a rule, the temperature should drop after a few days. But not only the fever is decisive for a visit to the doctor. Observation of other symptoms is also important. If the temperature increase does not disappear after several days, a visit to the doctor is recommended. In this case, you should not have a fever for more than 3 days.

How to measure temperature?

There are several ways of measuring fever. As a rule, body temperature can be determined with a clinical thermometer or fever meter. There are several ways to do this.

  • Underarm
  • To the ear
  • In the mouth

All measuring methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Some are more accurate, others more comfortable. Find the measurement method you like and try them all.

Children’s fever or baby fever

Fever in children or infants must be treated a little differently than in adults. This is because fever develops much more often in children than in adults. This has to do with the fact that the child is still developing.  In addition, the threshold of body temperature inhibition is somewhat lower in children. In newborns, therefore, we talk of a high fever as early as 39 °C. If the child has a temperature of 40 °C or more, it is much more dangerous than for an adult.
However, you can try to help your child with, for example, compresses on the calves or a damp cloth on the forehead. In this way, the temperature can usually be brought down again after a short time and the child can recover. However, always consult a paediatrician if in doubt.
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Electrical injury: How dangerous can an electrical accident be?

In our everyday lives, we are almost constantly surrounded by electricity. Whether in the office or at home in our own four walls, electricity flows. But the danger of cables or sockets is often underestimated. When does an electric shock occur and what are the consequences for people? We clarify the most important questions.

How does electric injury occur?

First of all, you have to understand the human body a little before you know how an electric shock actually occurs. Lots of electrical impulses flow through the human body. These electrical impulses are needed for the nervous system. For example, the nervous system can transmit different commands from our brain to the muscles. The heart also beats only through electrical impulses.
The difference to electricity is that in the body ions are used for the flow of current. In electrical devices, on the other hand, it is by means of electrons. But if an external current source reaches the body, it can become dangerous. It can then affect the muscles and cause cramps.
If, for example, you accidentally touch a socket or come into contact with an open power cable, it can be unpleasant. There is a lot of electricity flowing in these places. In the household, 230 V is common, as you can often read on power outlets. That is about 16 amperes. About 0.05 amps is enough to trigger a life-threatening heart fibrillation. That is the equivalent of about 50 milliamperes.

Is electric injury dangerous?

Electric injury can definitely be life-threatening. It always depends on the power source and how much current is flowing through it. Our body charges itself throughout the day. If you then reach out to a place that is also charged, you can also get a mild electric shock. We get a short shock and flinch briefly. Such an electric shock is not dangerous.
Whether an electric shock is really dangerous depends on several different factors:

  • Contact surface
  • Voltage
  • Current
  • Exposure time
  • Path through the body

It is also decisive whether the current is alternating or direct. In principle, alternating current is more likely to cause damage to health than direct current. With alternating current, the direction of flow changes constantly. With direct current, there is only one direction of flow. This does not mean, however, that direct current is harmless.

When is electric injury dangerous?

Here, too, it depends first of all on the current strength and the exposure time. If you are only exposed to a strong current for a short time, it is similarly dangerous as a light current for a longer time. It usually becomes dangerous at a current strength of about 50 milliamperes. If the current reaches the chest, it becomes really dangerous. This can lead to problems with the heart.
We have to be especially careful with power sources when one could come into contact with water or moisture. Then it is better to keep your hands off electrical appliances. In the bathroom, too, one should generally refrain from using radios or similar devices.

What to do in case of electric shock?

If an electric shock occurs in the household, you can help by disconnecting the power source. For example, by carefully pulling out the plug or by turning off the main switch. In the event of an accident with a high-voltage line, it is better to stay away from the accident site and dial the emergency number immediately. In that case, fast first aid for the person affected is very important.
With our Tarisapp, you can, for example, ask for help from medically trained personnel in the immediate vicinity. After all, several minutes can pass before the emergency services arrive at the scene of the accident. And every second counts in the event of an electrical accident.

First aid

If an electric shock occurs, first aid is essential for survival. Electrocution victims are dependent on all further help.
In the event of an accident involving electric shock, adhere to the following instructions:

  • Stay calm and dial the emergency number immediately.
  • Pay attention to your own safety. Look for the circuit and break it carefully without endangering yourself. You can do this, for example, with a blanket or a piece of wood, these are not conductive.
  • Talk to the person concerned and try to reassure them.
  • If there are burns, you can cover them with germ-free cloths.
  • The affected person is no longer conscious and is still breathing? Then place the person in the recovery position. Continue to monitor breathing and consciousness.
  • If there is no longer any breathing, carry out resuscitation measures immediately by means of cardiopulmonary massage.
  • In case of high-voltage accidents, first aid should only be administered by qualified medical personnel.

What are the possible consequences of electric injury?

A strong electric shock can eventually lead to death. If you are still a little lucky, you can survive. But then usually with serious consequences.
Consequences can be:

  • Severe burns
  • Seizures
  • Memory gaps
  • Impairment of body functions
  • Cardiac arrhythmia

When should you see a doctor?

If at least one of the consequences occurs, do not hesitate to go to the doctor. Even mild electric shocks can cause a general feeling of indisposition. The consequences of an electric shock should not be underestimated. The doctor will then order various examinations. The whole body is examined for possible damage.
Skin burns are treated with the help of ointments and bandages. If the pain is more severe, painkillers are used to relieve the pain. As a rule, people affected by electrocution stay in hospital for one or two days for observation. This is the only way to rule out further damage to the body.
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Concussion: Symptoms and treatment!

Have you hit your head or hit you by a ball to the head while training? Then you may experience severe headaches. A severe headache can also be a sign of a concussion of the brain. But how do you deal with a concussion and what exactly does it mean? Let’s clarify the most important questions.

How does a concussion occur?

A concussion usually occurs with more severe head injuries. A concussion is referred to as a brain injury because the brain is pushed against the wall of the skull on the inside. It is also often referred to as a minor traumatic brain injury. The causes can be different.
Normally, an impact or external force against the head causes concussion of the brain.  A distinction can be made between mild and severe concussion of the brain. With mild concussion of the brain, you have more severe headaches in the back of your head and complain of mild nausea. If you have severe concussion of the brain, you complain of many more symptoms. A typical sign is vomiting.
There are ways to avoid concussion. For example, you can wear a helmet while cycling. With children it is necessary to pay attention to the correct seat in the car. A poor-quality car seat can cause serious head injuries. In the case of small children, take special care not to give them any opportunity to climb. Because especially at a young age you are exposed to concussion of the brain.

Causes

There are many ways to get a concussion of the brain. Even small bumps to the head can mean a slight shock. Basically, a concussion of the brain affects the head. A head injury gives the brain a good jolt. That is why sports injuries are one of the most common causes.
You hit your head, the ball hits you very hard on your head or your head hits the ground. These are very familiar situations in sport. This is why the discussion about the introduction of compulsory helmets or head protectors has started in football. The reason for this is that more and more footballers are suffering serious head injuries with serious consequences.
The debate also started in youth football to ban headers up to a certain age. The reason for this was the as yet incomplete development of children, who are therefore significantly more susceptible to serious consequential damage. But it is not only sporting activities that can cause brain concussion. Accidents with a motorbike, bicycle or car can also cause serious head injuries.

Symptoms

Now the question arises: how to recognise a concussion? The good news is that concussion is very easy to diagnose. The symptoms are very clear. In the event of symptoms, however, it is important to consult a doctor. Because a concussion cannot rule out further brain damage. A concussion can cause bleeding in the brain and this can be life-threatening.
The most common symptoms of a concussion include:

  • Severe headache
  • Visual impairment
  • nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • unconsciousness
  • Neck pain
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Photosensitivity

These symptoms do not necessarily have to appear immediately after the accident. It can take up to several hours for the first signs to become apparent. In addition, some symptoms may extend over a longer period of time, such as neck pain.
If these symptoms occur after a head injury, consult a doctor as soon as possible. The doctor will then determine the severity of the concussion and provide the necessary treatment.

What to do in case of brain concussion?

If someone in the immediate vicinity hits their head, you can also quickly check the severity of the victim’s concussion. Ask the person for their name and current date. You can also check the victim’s mobility. If you notice clear problems here, you can assume severe concussion of the brain.
If there are no or only a few problems, mild shock can be assumed. Then take the person to the doctor or call an ambulance. If, for example, the skull is cracked or the person is unconscious, you should provide first aid immediately and dial the emergency number. With our Taris app, you can also call a professional doctor nearby.

How long do you need to rest in bed if you have a concussion?

Once you have been diagnosed with cerebral concussion, you first need plenty of rest. Normally, the attending physician orders bed rest for several days. A lot of rest and sleep is needed to recover from a concussion. The brain must first recover from the shock. Sporting activity must also be avoided for a long time.
Sport can be banned for a period of between 2 and 4 weeks. After a concussion, the brain is still very vulnerable to further injury. This is why it is particularly important to give the brain time to recover.

When is concussion dangerous?

It depends on the severity of the concussion. Basically, you make a full recovery with a mild and severe concussion. However, further head injuries cannot be excluded. If you do not seek medical attention for a concussion, undetected head injuries can be very dangerous.

What are the possible consequences of brain concussion?

In many cases, additional injuries occur that may not be visible from the outside. For example, brain hemorrhages can also occur, which are very dangerous. But long-term effects such as insomnia and poor concentration can still occur long after a brain concussion.
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Dramatic resuscitation during storm

Fainting: Losing consciousness!

Do you occasionally complain of circulatory problems or weakness? You are certainly not alone. Many people suffer from dizziness. Attacks like these should not be taken lightly. You can faint quickly. There may also be other reasons for sudden, life-threatening fainting. We explain the most important ones.

How does fainting happen?

Very common fainting happens when blood pressure or pulse drops slowly. This is why people with low blood pressure are particularly likely to lose consciousness. When circulatory fainting occurs, the nervous system has trouble working. The blood vessels widen and the heart rate increases. Subsequently, the brain is no longer adequately supplied with oxygen and unconsciousness occurs.
A circulatory collapse can also be a sign of a previously unknown disease. Above all, a sudden unconscious fainting spell is very typical. This may indicate a heart disease or diabetes, for example. Not excluding other probable diseases.
Therefore, if you suffer from frequent attacks of dizziness or general circulatory problems, you should definitely consult a doctor. If you continue to faint, you may have a very rare disease. Sick people faint several times a day. In this case, you should consult a specialist.

Causes

In medicine, syncope is referred to as fainting. It is difficult to define why you eventually faint, because the causes are mostly individual. One of the most common causes of fainting is stress. Fainting due to stress is nothing unusual and a well-known problem. Stress often leads to a so-called circulatory collapse or nervous breakdown.
This can also be called burnout. The victim is exposed to enormous stresses and pressures that the body can no longer withstand. But there can also be other causes of fainting.
The most common causes include:

  • fatigue
  • Low blood pressure
  • Heart disease
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • epilepsy
  • Unknown diseases

It is very important to be tested for circulatory problems. In this way it is possible to anticipate or even exclude further diseases. In many cases, preventive medical checks can save lives.

Symptoms

The symptoms of fainting are usually very clear. But before a person faints, there are other signs.
The most common symptoms of cardiovascular fainting are:

  • dizziness
  • Black in front of the eyes
  • Vision problems
  • Tingling sensation over the whole body
  • nausea
  • Slight contractions

If it is a fainting spell, you may also suffer from sudden cardiac arrest. This is a life-threatening fainting spell. The blood pressure drops rapidly and the heart stops. In the case of circulatory fainting, however, those affected wake up relatively quickly.

When is it dangerous to faint?

Fainting is particularly dangerous if the victim has no pulse or stops breathing. Then the person is in grave danger of death and must be treated immediately. It is important to provide first aid and dial the emergency number. In addition, resuscitation measures should be initiated.
But even unconsciousness with breathing and beating can quickly become dangerous. Protective reflexes such as coughing or swallowing are suspended. Liquids from vomit or blood can enter the windpipe, for example. There is also a danger of swallowing one’s own tongue. Therefore, it is extremely important to react quickly and provide immediate first aid.
Fainting or unconsciousness can occur at any time. In sport we also see cases of unconsciousness due to a collision. But circulatory weakness due to over-exertion can also lead to this. Such situations can also arise quickly in recreational sports. Here, too, it is important to help quickly and protect oneself from further danger.

What to do if someone faints?

If a person in your immediate vicinity faints, it is important that you remain calm and help. First of all, you must give first aid and call for help. You can do this, for example, with our Taris app.
This involves calling nearby medical personnel for help until the ambulance or emergency doctor arrives. It is usually a long time before the help you need arrives, and this is where professional assistance can be very helpful. However, we have compiled the most important tips in case of fainting
First aid for fainting:

  • Remain calm, grasp and talk to the person to control consciousness.
  • Dial the helpline number and get additional quick help through the Taris App.
  • Then, take the person’s pulse and check their breathing.
  • Then expose the airways and above all loosen tight clothing, such as ties.
  • If the person is still breathing, place them in the recovery position and continue to monitor their breathing.
  • If there is no breathing and no pulse, resuscitation measures must be started immediately. For example, with cardiac massage.

Note: These first aid measures are only a rough guide in case of fainting. If necessary, you will receive further instructions on the phone when you dial the emergency number. Therefore, listen carefully.
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Sunstroke: what helps and how can it be prevented?

Temperatures rise in summer. It gets hotter every year because of global warming. So it is easy to underestimate the sun and the heat in the summer. Suddenly you have sunstroke and you don’t know what to do next. We will show you what you can do about it and how to prevent sunstroke.

What exactly happens with sunstroke?

With sunstroke, the body is exposed to the sun for a long time. The strong and permanent effect of the sun’s rays on the head can have a negative effect on the body. The person complains of various symptoms and has a general feeling of sickness.
The head and neck play the most important role here. Usually you only suffer from sunstroke if you do not protect yourself adequately from the intense heat. That’s why it’s important to wear a hat even in summer. Especially when you have little or no hair on your head. It is therefore essential to prevent sunstroke even for babies and children by putting on a hat.
When it must be considered, hair density is also important. If, for example, your scalp is still clearly visible, your hair can offer no protection against sunburn either. However, you should not only trust your hair when it is very hot. It is important to protect your head and neck from the sun’s rays.

How does sunstroke happen?

 The causes of sunstroke do not necessarily include UV rays, but rather the intense heat to which one is exposed. The sun’s rays penetrate the scalp and thus irritate the meninges. Blood vessels in different areas expand and can even cause swelling of the brain. As a result, the person no longer feels well and complains of the first signs of sunstroke.
Sunstroke is often confused with heat stroke. You might think that these are the same, but there are clear differences. With heat stroke, the symptoms are much more severe and the health risk is much higher. In the case of sunstroke, you should stay out of the sun as quickly as possible and regenerate again. In case of heat stroke, on the other hand, you should immediately call an emergency doctor and provide first aid.

Symptoms

 If you end up with sunstroke, then you don’t feel well in the first place. You complain of headaches and a feeling of dizziness. If this is the case, you should quickly move away from the sun and look for a shady place. But there are also other signs for sunstroke.
The most common symptoms include:

  • Head turns
  • Headaches
  • Neck pain
  • Hot and red body
  • Cold head
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Note: In the worst case, even a strong sunstroke will cause you to lose consciousness. Therefore it is important to remain calm and keep the affected person conscious. In case of emergency, do not hesitate and call the emergency services.

What to do in case of sunstroke?

 Treatment is particularly important in cases of sunstroke. When the first signs become evident, sunstroke must be treated immediately. The sooner the sunstroke is neutralised, the shorter the duration of a sunstroke. And so the symptoms and consequences are much more harmless.
Please note the following:

  • Move the affected person away from the sun and into a shady and cool place.
  • Then place the upper part of the affected person’s body slightly higher up.
  • Try to cool the head and neck, for example with a damp cloth.
  • It is important to drink plenty of water.
  • Do not take a cold shower or bath. This will only upset the cycle.
  • Finally, you should continue to control your breathing and your consciousness. If the situation worsens, do not hesitate to call the emergency services.

Sunstroke during pregnancy is also not uncommon. However, to get through pregnancy well, pregnant women should pay special attention to heat and sun. During pregnancy, hormones make you much more susceptible. It is therefore best to follow our advice on prevention.

Preventing sunburn: tips

 To avoid suffering from sunstroke, it should be carefully prevented. You can prepare very well in advance, especially if the days are announced. We have collected the most important tips for prevention.

  • Make sure you do not stay in the sun. From time to time you should go to a cool, shady place.
  • In extreme heat you sweat a lot and lose a lot of body fluid. That is why it is especially important to drink a lot. Avoid alcohol if possible.
  • Wear loose, airy clothes to keep cool.
  • Think about headgear, such as a cap or hat.
  • If possible, avoid the intense heat at midday and switch to other times instead.
  • Avoid a heavy meal, otherwise heavy digestion can trigger additional body heat.

You should definitely not underestimate a sunstroke and watch the weather report. This allows you to be sufficiently prepared when the heat is announced.
If heat is taken lightly, it can do much more than just sunstroke. Heat stroke is far worse and can be very dangerous. But so that it doesn’t come to that, you can prevent sunstroke by a few means and enjoy the summer.
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Dyspnoea: What to do when you suddenly run out of air?

Have you ever experienced wheezing, shortness of breath or simply difficulty breathing? Then you have probably also wondered where these breathing problems come from and how to be better prepared for them next time. In this article we will explain the most important things about shortness of breath.

What exactly happens when you suffer from breathlessness?

In the case of shortness of breath, the affected person has great difficulty breathing. This often manifests itself as shortness of breath or wheezing for breath. In medicine, shortness of breath is called dyspnoea. If the breathing difficulties are even worse, it is also called orthopnoea.
Dyspnoea occurs when you can suddenly barely breathe in calm situations. So it does not necessarily have to lead to excessive stress on the body and shortness of breath. It is often much more difficult to breathe after excessive exertion in sport. But this is not necessarily dyspnoea.
It is clear that dyspnoea is a serious matter. For example, if you experience shortness of breath at night or shortness of breath at low power, you should see a doctor. Ignoring breathing problems and waiting for them to pass can be very dangerous.

How does shortness of breath happen?

For example, dyspnoea often occurs in conjunction with heart failure or a heart attack. Dyspnoea is one of the most common symptoms of these heart problems. This is because a heart attack, for example, means that the oxygen supply through the blood is not optimal.
Nevertheless, dyspnoea does not necessarily only appear in the case of physical problems. Breathing problems can also occur for psychological reasons. If you are exposed to a lot of stress or suffer from mental illnesses in general, dyspnoea cannot necessarily be ruled out.
Dyspnoea becomes noticeable at the latest when everything becomes too much for you or when you are exposed to enormous pressure. Burnout is typical of this. With burnout, you experience many different symptoms. The most common are pain in the limbs, lack of strength and respiratory distress.

Causes

The most common causes of breathlessness are certain diseases that cause breathing problems. These include, for example, asthma or COPD. COPD is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This means that the airways become increasingly narrow. This makes it much harder to breathe.
Asthma is a disease that is not necessarily rare. More and more people suffer from asthma. Here it is important to talk it out with your treating doctor.
Other causes can be:

  • Psychological problems or stress
  • Continuous stress
  • Traumatic experiences
  • Anxiety or anxiety disorders
  • Heart disease

Traumatic experiences are often repressed by the affected persons. However, this can lead to long-term consequential damage. Traumatic experiences can also cause flashbacks, for example. In this case, one is virtually transported back to the traumatic experience and relives the event. This can also lead to breathing problems.
In the case of anxiety, affected persons usually also experience breathing difficulties. In the case of a heart attack, this is quite typical. The victim mainly shows chest discomfort and is thus afraid of death. This fear of death can also cause shortness of breath.

Symptoms

Now the question is how to recognise respiratory distress. The corresponding symptoms are very important for this. Basically, with dyspnoea you can assume that the person affected has difficulty breathing. There are different symptoms.
The most common symptoms of respiratory problems include:

  • Gasping
  • Shortness of breath
  • Burning in the chest
  • Shortness of breath when lying down or at night
  • Breathlessness during low output or also during pregnancy

It is not unusual for shortness of breath to occur during pregnancy. The psychological stress during pregnancy can also be the cause. Nevertheless, you should discuss the symptoms of dyspnoea with your gynaecologist or your attending doctor.

What to do in case of shortness of breath? 

If you suffer from sudden shortness of breath or wish to help an affected person, there are a few things to consider. We have collected the most important tips for dyspnea.

  • If shortness of breath occurs suddenly, the affected person quickly panics. Here it is important to calm yourself or the person down. Because any panic is encouraged by even more fear.
  • You should try to breathe calmly and carefully. In this way, one tries carefully and slowly to regain regular breathing.
  • It is extremely important to call for first aid and to dial the emergency number. It depends on how severe the shortness of breath is. This is because shortness of breath can very often be related to a life-threatening situation, such as a pulmonary embolism.
  • The affected person must be placed in a supportive sitting position. The person should be sat up carefully and slowly. Any jerky movement can make breathing more difficult. It is best to support the person against a wall.
  • Tight clothing must be loosened to expose the airways.
  • If unconsciousness occurs, breathing must be controlled. If breathing is regular, place the person in the recovery position.
  • If the person stops breathing or suffers a cardiac arrest, resuscitation measures must be taken immediately.

Note: If you have breathing problems, one of the things you can do is train the auxiliary breathing muscles. Specific breathing training can strengthen the respiratory support muscles and alleviate breathing problems. There are different programmes or courses for this.
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Burns on the body: what can be done?

It happens faster than you think. Often you get minor burns, but more serious burns can quickly develop. But how does a burn happen and how bad are they? We answer the most important questions about burns.

What do burns look like on the body?

The skin is the largest organ on our body and is always affected by burns. It always depends on the severity of the burn. Burns on the body are first noticeable by a reddish discolouration. The more severe the burn, the more likely it is that small blisters will form. Burns must be treated as soon as possible. Otherwise, the wound may become infected.
At this point, the wound starts to ulcerate and smell a little strong. The longer you wait to treat the burn, the longer it will take to heal. These are only minor burns that can be very uncomfortable but will heal after a while.
Then there are also very severe burns that are visible on the body. You may have seen someone with scars all over their body or on certain parts of their body. These are severe burns, usually caused by a fire or a similarly dangerous accident. Scars remain on the body that can never be removed. Nevertheless, you can lead a normal life with such scars, even if most of the skin is damaged.

The different degrees of a burn

It is not the temperature that is responsible for the degree of burn, but the exposure time. The longer a person is exposed to a fire, for example, the more severe the injuries become. The heat eventually reaches the organs via the skin and can also damage them. The damage of burns can be classified into different stages.
The different degrees of burns:

  • 1st degree burn
  • 2nd degree burn
  • 3rd degree burn
  • 4th degree burn

1st degree burn

This is the weakest degree of burns. The burn is noticeable by slight reddening. No blisters form yet. The redness is caused by increased blood flow to the body to treat the affected area itself. The redness should heal relatively quickly.

2nd degree burn

If the burn is somewhat more severe and the first blisters form, it is called a 2nd degree burn. A distinction can be made here between 2nd degree burn A and B.
With stage A, healing should also be possible without further consequences. The skin recovers and there are no scars. The blisters dry out after a while and a very dry crust forms, which can be painful.
In stage B, the burn is somewhat more severe and the resulting blisters may leave scars. Typical for stage B is that the scars tear and the swellingis much stronger.

3rd degree burn

Here, the burn penetrates the fatty tissue of the skin and leaves clear damage. Reddish and black-brown burns form. Healing takes much longer than in the first two degrees. What is special here is that there is usually no feeling of pain in the affected area. Why? The nerves in the skin have been destroyed by the heat. In some cases, the affected area must be replaced with a graft.

4th degree burn

In this case, not only the skin is burnt, but also deeper structures. Tendons, bones or even muscles are affected. Depending on the severity of the burn, the damage can also extend to the organs.

Consequences of a burn

The consequences of a burn can range from very mild to very severe. In most cases, the skin recovers after some time and no damage remains. In the case of accident or burn victims, severe damage often remains. This is usually noticeable through the skin.
How exactly? Deep scars remain. Nevertheless, one can lead a largely normal life with the consequences of a severe burn. However, those affected have to be careful with their skin. The damaged skin is much more vulnerable than before.

First aid for burns: Instructions

What to do if you suffer a burn? We have collected the most important tips for burns.
Follow the steps below:

  • If the clothing is on fire, try to extinguish the fire as quickly as possible. Use water, roll the person on the floor, or smother the fire with a blanket.
  • Remove the burnt clothing quickly and carefully.
  • Then dial the emergency number as soon as possible.
  • Provide first aid if necessary. With our app, you can even quickly request professional first aid in the immediate vicinity.
  • You can treat minor burns with cool water to achieve a “felt” relief of the pain that occurs.
  • You can treat burns on the face with wet wipes. Make sure that the airways are always kept clear.
  • Large burns should not be cooled under any circumstances, otherwise there is a risk of hypothermia.
  • Instead, cover larger burns with a bandage.
  • Try to reassure the affected person and fight the shock.
  • If necessary, the affected person may become unconscious. Then place the person in the recovery position.
  • If the person is still unconscious and has a cardiac arrest, start resuscitation measures.

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Shock: What exactly happens in a state of shock?

When one hears the term “shock”, most people think they understand it. But there is much more to the term than meets the eye. What many people do not know is that there are many different types of shock. In this article we will tell you the most important things.

What exactly is a shock?

The definition of shock is a circulatory failure of the body. In the worst case, a state of shock can lead to multi-organ failure. This means that gradually the function of the organs fails. Shock usually results in poorer blood flow to smaller blood vessels. As a result, our tissues receive significantly less oxygen, which in turn causes the symptoms of shock.
A distinction can be made between the different types of shock and the stages of shock. If there is a strong shock reaction and just the poorer blood circulation, the body begins to protect the most important organs. Our body primarily protects the brain, the heart and the lungs.
While the body tries to protect the most important organs, it has to pay less attention to other organs. As a result, it is mainly the arms and legs that suffer damage at first. This therefore makes it clear that one should certainly not underestimate a state of shock. Otherwise, you are playing with the life of the affected person.

How does shock occur?

There can be different causes for a shock. It also depends on the type of shock. However, all types of shock have one common denominator and that is the reduced blood supply within the body. Shock can be caused by, for example, heavy bleeding, fear, loss of fluids or even fright. In addition, unusual situations can produce a state of shock. Shock situations are mainly seen in accidents or similar situations with dire consequences. But there are also shock states such as anaphylactic shock, which is caused by a severe allergic reaction.

What are the different types of shock?

Many people do not know that there are different types of shocks. We have compiled the most important types of shock.
The different forms of shock are as follows:

  • Anaphylactic shock: This is an extremely severe allergic reaction that can also end in death. You can read more about anaphylactic shock right here.
  • Septic shock: Is usually the result of severe sepsis (blood poisoning).
  • Hypovolaemic shock: This is a severe loss of blood or fluid. This usually occurs with severe burns, severe injuries, severe diarrhoea or severe vomiting.
  • Cardiogenic shock: A state of shock that usually occurs as a result of a heart attack.

Shock stages

In addition to the types of shock, there are also different courses of shock. A distinction is therefore made between the severity of a shock state.
One can distinguish between three different stages:

  1. compensated shock – stage I

At this stage, mild symptoms of shock become noticeable. The person is frightened, restless and begins to tremble. Breathing is largely stable and the skin is pale.

  1. decompensated shock – stage II

The affected person is no longer properly conscious. The skin is quite pale and breathing is not normal and much faster. Cold sweat is visible on the skin.

  1. manifest shock – stage III

At this stage, the affected person’s life is in danger. The person loses consciousness and breathes very shallowly. In addition, the skin turns a light shade of grey.
Note: This is a general description of the types of shock. Depending on the type of shock, there may be additional variations.

Symptoms

How does shock actually make itself felt? The first symptoms become apparent in the various stages. But there are other symptoms that can be attributed to a state of shock.
The most common symptoms of shock:

  • Fear
  • Trembling
  • Freeze
  • Pale skin
  • Nervousness
  • Restless
  • Cold sweat
  • Unconsciousness
  • Restless breathing

Causes

Now the question arises in which situations a shock can occur. Here it also depends on the type of shock. In the case of anaphylactic shock, for example, an allergy is the cause. In the case of septic shock, it is the consequences of sepsis. Nevertheless, there are general causes that can cause a state of shock.
This includes, above all, accidents with major damage. But also, after attacks, in panic situations or similar situations can cause a state of shock.

What to do in case of shock?

If you notice various symptoms of shock in a person in a particular situation, you should give first aid quickly.
Here you will find all the important tips:

  • Call the emergency number immediately and request help.
  • Try to approach the person concerned and touch them carefully.
  • Stay calm and try to reassure the person concerned.
  • While conscious, place the person on the floor and elevate the legs. This is to stimulate the blood circulation.
  • Observe the course of the symptoms that occur.
  • If necessary, the affected person may become unconscious, then place the person in the recovery position.
  • Cover the person.
  • If respiratory arrest occurs, initiate resuscitation measures.

If you are not able to give first aid, you can also call first aid. With our app, for example, you can request trained first responders in the vicinity. This way, you can also ensure professional help in an emergency.
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Epileptic seizure: What exactly is behind it?

Many people do not see it, but some are affected by the disease epilepsy. With epilepsy, the risk of suffering an epileptic seizure is huge. What exactly this is and what you should do, you will learn in our article.

What exactly is an epileptic seizure?

An epileptic seizure is a consequence of epilepsy. Epilepsy is a disease caused by a brainrelated seizure disorder. There are several million nerve cells in our brain that have to work together. These nerve cells enable us to move, feel or think, for example. If an epileptic seizure occurs, these nerve cells are disturbed in their cooperation.
Epilepsy is a chronic disease, which means that the person with the disease will have it for life. You cannot get rid of the disease, but you can live with it. Various treatment options make it possible to lead an almost “normal” life.
Epilepsy can occur at any age, even in childhood. However, epilepsy often fades with the onset of puberty. Nevertheless, epilepsy and epileptic seizures should not be taken lightly. For those affected, an epileptic seizure can be very dangerous.

What happens during an epileptic seizure?

The triggers for an epileptic seizure are usually nerve cells that are disturbed in the brain. As a defensive reaction, they then trigger a convulsion. In the sufferer, this eventually leads to an epileptic seizure. The nerve cells are discharged for a short time. As a rule, clear symptoms then appear.
Normally, the symptoms are only triggered in the brain. The nerve cells that are affected then cause the movement in the respective parts of the body. All in all, the brain controls our body functions.
There are different degrees of epileptic seizures. Many small seizures are hardly noticed. Others, however, are so severe that they can be very dangerous for the person affected. The decisive factor is in which area of the brain a seizure is triggered and how severely the nerve cells are affected.

Causes

Many epileptic seizures occur in childhood. Small accidents are often the cause. However, if you have an epileptic seizure, the diagnosis is not automatically epilepsy. It is also possible to have an epileptic seizure without being affected by the disease. If you have an epileptic seizure, you should see a doctor. The doctor must then investigate the possible causes.
The doctor can then identify the cause of the epileptic seizure and prescribe appropriate treatment. There can be several causes for epileptic seizures.
Other signs of an epileptic seizure may include:

  • Brain damage
  • Brain injuries
  • Brain tumour
  • High fever
  • Sleep disorders
  • Poisonings
  • Metabolic problems
  • Circulatory disorders
  • Strokes
  • Gene defects

A small fraction can also inherit the disease from their parents. The probability is very small. Even so, it is possible that parents with epilepsy can pass it on to their children.

Symptoms

When an epileptic seizure finally occurs, there are different symptoms. It depends on the intensity and the affected region of the brain. Some epileptic seizures are barely noticeable, even if the person is conscious. With other seizures, on the other hand, the affected person is unconscious and does not notice anything.
The most common symptoms include the following:

  • Sudden fall over
  • Cramps or twitching all over the body
  • Dizziness up to unconsciousness
  • Language loss
  • Palpitations
  • Fear

If the epileptic seizure is very violent, the whole body may start to twitch very strongly. Here, the danger is that the affected person may hit their head on the floor. This in turn can lead tofurther head injuries. Epileptic seizures can theoretically occur at any time. If an epileptic seizure occurs, first aid should be given quickly.

Sudden epileptic seizure: what to do?

If someone in the vicinity suffers an epileptic seizure, you should first observe the symptoms. If the symptoms are not too strong, try to calm the person down and wait for further symptoms. Under no circumstances should you hold the twitching legs or arms. If the epileptic seizure is severe, try to remove any dangerous objects in the vicinity quickly. In this way, you can prevent further injuries to the affected person. In addition, you should quickly dial the emergency number.
If the affected person regains consciousness, try to reassure the person and describe the situation. If you have an epileptic seizure, you are usually so out of it that you don’t notice anything. It is important to explain everything calmly to the person and still wait for first aid. Is the person unconscious and breathing? Then you should place the person in the recovery position. Stay with the person and observe further symptoms. Check whether the person is still breathing.

Epileptic seizure: tips

In order to best prepare you for a situation with an epileptic seizure, we have accumulated the most important tips for you:

  • Remove dangerous objects in the environment
  • In no case hold the legs or arms
  • Try to protect the head of the person concerned.
  • If unconscious, place the person in the recovery position.
  • In any case, call the emergency number and request first aid.
  • Listen obediently to the emergency call and follow instructions on the phone if necessary.
  • Until first aid arrives, constantly check for any sign of life in the affected person: breathing or consciousness.

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