Category: First aid

First aid after drowning: How to help?

Bathing in water can be a lot of fun. But besides the fun, the water also holds many dangers. According to the SLRG SSS, 46 drowning cases were reported in 2020. During and after drowning, affected persons are dependent on immediate help from the people close by. Let us explain more about first aid after drowning. 

In which circumstances can someone drown?   

All things considered, people can drown wherever there is water, but it is often the circumstances that are decisive. For non-swimmers, it becomes particularly dangerous if they suddenly end up in the depths of the water or are in the non-swimmer area. If a bathing accident occurs and people fall overboard, drowning can also occur quickly even if the people can swim. If you have a bathing accident and accidentally hit your head, you could pass out and end up in the depths of the water and drown.   

 In the public swimming pool, there are also occasional accidents in which people can drown. Children or young people jump off the edge of the pool and accidentally jump onto a diving person. Here, the person affected can lose consciousness and slowly drown without anyone really noticing. That’s why you should always follow the rules in the open-air swimming pool and pay attention to your fellow human beings.   

It is especially dangerous for people in the water in summer. High temperatures and cold water can do a lot to the body. Cramps or cardiac arrest can occur. Strong currents can also bring our bodies to the limits of their strength. It is therefore important to take care of yourself and, if in doubt, never go alone in the water. But when it comes down to it, you may have to give first aid yourself. Then you should be prepared for the situation.   

How do you recognise an emergency in water?   

Basically, one should have a keen eye for when a person is really drowning. The further the affected person is from the shore, the more difficult it is to assess the emergency. If it is still possible for the affected person, he or she will probably cry out for help; but often this is not possible.  Instead, one should look for a strong overstretching of the head. This means that the victim is still trying to gasp for air. In addition to this, affected persons try to keep themselves above water somehow by hitting the water very hard with their arms.   

With children, the situation is a little different. Children are usually unable to stretch their heads so much that their mouths and nose are above water. They try instead to keep themselves above water with everything they have. Outsiders can then at most perceive movements of the arms and hands. Unlike adults, children quickly fall into a “stupor” status when drowning and drown immediately after. Children also like to go diving, which could look suspicious to outsiders. Therefore, it is best to always keep an eye on children.   

How to give first aid?   

If an emergency arises where a person is drowning, you can follow these tips:    

  • Get help from a safe place! Before trying to pull the person out of the water, make an emergency call. If there are two of you at the scene of the accident, you can split up the work. This is because drowning victims usually lash out uncontrollably or try to hold on to something, thus risking putting the first aider in danger. Therefore, you should first try to help the person from the shore if this is possible. A lifebuoy, for example, can be helpful here.     
  • Check breathing and stop hypothermia! Once the victim is out of the water, you should stop the hypothermia by removing the victim’s wet clothing. In addition, you can put a rescue blanket over the victim, if available. Caution. The silver side must be down-facing or inside. If the person is conscious, check whether the victim can still feel his or her legs. If this is the case, the person should not be moved because a fall into the water can cause injuries to the spine. If the person is no longer conscious, you should immediately check their breathing. If the person is breathing, place him/her in the recovery position; if not, start resuscitation immediately.   

Preventing bathing accidents  

In the best case, a bathing accident can be prevented beforehand by taking the best possible precautions.     

Follow these tips:    

  • If the outside temperature is hot, it is essential to cool down well before getting into the water.  
  • You should get out of the water as soon as you start feeling cold.   
  • You should only jump into the water if you know for sure that it is deep enough.   
  • Keep away from boats and ships.     
  • If you can’t swim, the water should only reach up to your stomach.     
  • You should only swim if you really feel healthy and comfortable to do so.   
  • If there is a thunderstorm, you should get out of the water immediately.    
  • One should desist from submerging others underwater.   
  • One should not go swimming with a full as well as with an empty stomach.   
  • One should not overestimate one’s own abilities and strengths.   

Further articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • https://www.gesundheit.gv.at/krankheiten/erste-hilfe/notfall/ertrinken 
  • https://www.malteser.de/aware/hilfreich/die-nasse-gefahr-erste-hilfe-bei-badeunfaellen-und-ertrinken.html 
  • https://www.slrg.ch/medien/ertrinkungsstatistik.html 
  • https://www.drk.de/hilfe-weltweit/aktuelles-weltweit/meldung/so-helfen-sie-richtig-drk-tipps-zu-badeunfaellen/ 

Picture credits: ©Envatoelements 

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First aid kit: what you absolutely need!

A first aid kit can help with injuries in an emergency and thus save lives. Whether first aid kit, first aid bag or first aid box. They are used to support first aid. But what do the contents of a first aid kit look like and what do you have to consider?     

In which situations do I need a first aid kit?     

A first aid kit can help in any situation. Whether it is just a small cut while doing housework in the kitchen or after an accident on the highway. A first aid kit is meant to help quickly and professionally.   

While in other countries, such as Germany, there is an obligation to carry a first aid kit in the car, this is not the case in Switzerland. Nevertheless, it is recommended to carry a first aid kit in the car for a possible emergency. Besides the car, you can also keep a first aid kit at your home. This way you are prepared for all possible emergencies in your own home.   

A small first aid kit can also be used on the road. This set is usually kept very simple and small, so that it fits in your own pocket or backpack. A first aid kit is recommended especially for longer trips, such as hiking trips.   

What should a first aid kit look like?   

A first aid kit is not put together arbitrarily, but the contents are based on a specified DIN standard. Two DIN standards play an important role here: German standard DIN 13157 and DIN 13169. DIN 13157 is about first aid kits, which are provided to ensure proper first aid.  DIN 13169 is about larger first aid kits, such as a first aid kit.   

The DIN standard comes from Germany and thus has purely legal significance only in Germany. Nevertheless, the DIN standard is also frequently mentioned in Switzerland. If you want to buy a first aid kit, it does not hurt to take a look at the standard of the German colleagues.  

First aid kit (for on the road)   

A small first aid kit for your handbag or backpack can be put together quickly and easily. Smaller first aid kits are often offered for sale ready assembled. Such a first aid kit is ideal for hikes or excursions. The following contents are usually sufficient:   

  • 1x rescue blanket 
  • 1x first aid kit (medium size)  
  • 1 pair of vinyl gloves  
  • 1x non-adhesive compress   
  • 1x plaster strips (set))  

These are the absolute basics in a first aid kit. Depending on your needs, the set can also be expanded.   

First aid box    

A first aid box can be found mainly in your own home or business. The first aid box is intended to repair more severe injuries that may occur at home or at work. In addition to the first aid box, first aid closets are also used in a business. A first aid closet is usually slightly larger and has more contents. If there is a first aid box in your workplace, ask the employer where it is located. In case of an emergency, it is always good to know where it is located.     

First aid bag   

The first aid bag is the most common first aid kit, which can be found mainly in cars or in larger institutions, such as museums. The first aid bag is one of the best equipped for an emergency.

The following content must be included according to the DIN standard:

  DIN 13157   DIN 13169  
Bandage cloth DIN 13152   1   2  
Packets of bandages DIN 13151 (small)   1   2  
Packets of bandages DIN 13151 (medium)   3   6  
Packets of bandages DIN 13151 (large)   1   2  
fixation bandage (4 m x 6 cm)   2   4  
fixation bandage (4 m x 8 cm)   2   4  
Compress bandage   6   12  
Eye compress    2   4  
Fingertip bandage (4,3 x 7,2 cm)   4   8  
Finger bandage (12 x 2 cm)   4   8  
Band aid strips (small)   4   8  
Band aid strips (large)   8   16  
Adhesive plaster (5 m x 2,50 cm)   1   2  
Quick aid bandage (10 x 6 cm)   8   16  
Gold/Silver Emergency blanket (210 x 160 cm)    1   2  
Triangular cloth  2   4  
Bandage shears (19 cm)    1   1  
Single use gloves  4   8  
Fleece cloths (20 x 30 cm)   5   10  
Foil bag (30 x 40 cm)   2   4  
Instant cold compress (small)   1   2  
First aid booklet  1   1  
Bandage handbook  1   1  
Refill pack according to DIN 13157   1   –  
Refill pack according to DIN 13169   –   1  

Note: This is the content according to DIN standard, which is not mandatory in Switzerland. It is merely a recommendation.   

What happens after using a first aid kit?     

If a first aid kit is used, all the contents used should be reordered as soon as possible. Because if an emergency occurs again and the contents are not available, professional first aid cannot be guaranteed. The individual contents can be easily reordered online.     

Observe expiration date  

The contents of a first aid kit can also have an expiration date. Here it is important to check the contents for the expiration date. If an expiration date has been reached, the contents cannot guarantee proper first aid according to the DIN standard. Since the DIN standard again only applies in Germany, this does not apply to Switzerland. Nevertheless, it is recommended to replace the contents after reaching the expiration date.   

Basically, however, you should check the contents of a first aid kit every 6 months for the expiration date. Then sort out all products that have already expired. Once you have done this, you can use the checklist to reorder the new products you need and replenish them as soon as you receive them.   

Where do you keep a first aid kit?  

A first aid kit, whether a bag or a box, should always be stored in a safe place. To do this, the kit should be kept cool and dry. It should also not be easily accessible to children and infants.   

More articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • https://www.kroschke.com/inhaltsliste-erste-hilfe-koffer-din13157-din13169–k.html 
  • https://www.betriebsapotheke.ch/welche-rolle-spielt-die-din-norm-fuer-erste-hilfe 
  • https://www.hansaplast.de/ratgeber/wundversorgung/erste-hilfe-schrank 

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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First aid after a Fire: This is what you should know!

In Switzerland, there are about 20,000 fires every year. Among them, there are about 200 people who lose their lives. How can you help in an emergency? With the help of the guide of First Aid after a fire you can save people’s lives.  

Under which circumstances can a fire occur?   

Basically, it can happen at any time that a fire suddenly breaks out. There are sparks from an old multiple socket, while cooking the kitchen suddenly catches fire or even the deliberate setting of a fire. There are many different causes that can lead to a fire. In case of a developing fire it is important to stay calm and not to panic.   

In the case of a fire, burns can occur mainly on the body. A distinction can be made between minor and severe burns. But not only burns on the body can occur in a fire. Burning of various objects, such as furniture or electrical appliances, can also lead to poisoning. The harmful gases produced by the fire can cause severe damage if inhaled.     

What should I do after a fire?  

If a fire breaks out in your home, you should remain calm in any case. If it is possible for you, you can first try to extinguish the fire yourself. However, you should never put yourself in danger. If the fire is too strong, you should leave the room. If possible, close the windows and the door before leaving the room. This will prevent the fire from spreading to other rooms as quickly. If possible, it is advisable to place a damp towel at the bottom of the door. This makes it harder for toxic gases and smoke to reach other rooms.   

Afterwards, you should leave the house or apartment as quickly as possible. In doing so, you must evacuate other people in the house or apartment. There should be no one left in the building. Alert people by knocking on the door, the house bell or by telephone. If there is an elevator in the building, avoid it at all costs. In case of fire, always use the stairs to escape.   

If you have not yet dialed the emergency number, you should do so now at the latest. You can reach the fire department in Switzerland via 118 . But you can also call for help via the European standardized emergency number 112 . Learn more about the emergency numbers in Switzerland. Then wait until the fire department arrives. They will talk to you and try to get an idea of the danger situation. As much information as possible is helpful.  

Giving First Aid: Instructions  

What to do if you find a person? If this is the case, you should not ignore the person in any case. Nevertheless, you should weigh your own safety. In an emergency, your own safety always comes first. If you do not put yourself in danger, you should administer first aid.  

Follow these instructions:

  1. Check the consciousness of the victim. If the victim is conscious, skip to point 2. If the victim is not conscious, skip to point 5. 
  2. Try to calm the victim and check the person for possible injuries on the body.   
  3. If the clothing is still burning, immediately extinguish the fire.   
  4. Then look for possible burns or injuries on the body. You can learn how to act in case of burns on the body right here.  
  5. If the person is not conscious and there is no pulse, you should immediately initiate resuscitation measures. You can find detailed instructions here.   

Important: For first aid measures during a fire, you should first remove yourself and the affected person from the hazardous situation. In the safe environment, you can then initiate all important first aid steps after a fire.   

Psychological care  

A fire with severe consequences can also be very stressful for the psyche. If you yourself or others need psychological care, you can always turn to the pastoral care service.   

Avoid and prevent fire  

In the best case scenario, there should be no fire that can lead to an apartment fire. Therefore, one should avoid possible sources of danger in the apartment or house. Old electrical appliances, leaking cables or similar. One should take the time to inspect the house or apartment for possible sources of danger. In addition, it is also useful to have your own fire extinguisher for emergencies. This way you are also well equipped for a possible fire in the household.     

Smoke detectors save lives  

While in Germany it is mandatory to install smoke detectors in the home, this is not yet the case in Switzerland. Smoke detectors can provide a timely warning of a developing fire in various rooms. Especially in bedrooms and children’s rooms, smoke detectors can be a great help. This is because many fire victims die due to suffocation in their sleep.   

Nowadays, small smoke detectors for the apartment are not really expensive and very easy to install. Only the batteries must be replaced after some time, so that you can guarantee the functioning of the smoke detectors. Even if there is no obligation to install smoke detectors in Switzerland yet, we recommend you install smoke detectors in the apartment.   

More articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • http://wersto.ch/.cm4all/mediadb/Brandstatistik%20der%20Schweiz.pdf 
  • https://www.malteser.de/aware/hilfreich/achtung-feuer-wie-du-richtig-reagierst-wenn-es-brennt.html 

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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First aid after an accident: what to look out for!

It happens faster than you think: a car accident. You may not be personally involved, but you can help. Accident victims depend enormously on the help of others. But how can you help in the event of an accident if you don’t know the situation? What needs to be considered? How do you administer first aid after an accident?

Use the 6 steps to provide first aid after an accident 

In 2020, there were about 6.2 million vehicles in Switzerland This means that there are also many cars on Switzerland’s roads every day. Many cars also increase the likelihood of a road accident. A short microsleep, a small distraction or even vehicle failure can suddenly cause an accident. Some accidents only cause damage to the vehicle, while other accidents can cause life-threatening injuries to the occupants. 

If this happens, the people involved depend on the first aid measures of people in the immediate vicinity. All holders of a driving licence basically learn how to apply all the important steps during the compulsory first aid course. But as time goes by, knowledge diminishes, because as a rule the first aid course is not repeated, and knowledge is not updated. But what should you do if you are involved in or witness a traffic accident? 

1. Do not look away

You are probably shocked at first when you witness a road accident. Or even if you notice the accident and the people injured while driving. But the human brain reacts almost automatically and uses its instincts to help others.  

Therefore, you should not look away when you are in a road accident. Because when human lives are at stake, any help is better than no help at all! If you ignore an obvious accident site and fail to provide first aid, you can be punished for not providing assistance. It is therefore a legal obligation to provide first aid in the event of a road accident involving injured persons.   

2. Do not put yourself in danger

Even if other people depend on our help, our own safety still comes first. Because if you put yourself in danger, you cannot help the people involved and you yourself become a victim. The most important thing is to remain calm and not react frantically. Therefore, you should stay on the side of the road as much as possible.   

3. Secure the scene of the accident

Before helping the injured person or making an emergency call, you should secure the scene of the accident. This will help prevent further accidents and avoid further injuries.
When securing the scene of an accident, do the following: 

  1. If you stop your vehicle, you must park it at least 10 metres away from the accident scene. When parking the vehicle, ensure that you do not obstruct traffic. Then switch on your hazard lights to attract attention. 
  2. Then put on your high-visibility waistcoat, which must be in the car. This will make you more visible to other vehicles. 
  3. Finally, place the warning triangle in a clearly visible position. The warning triangle should be placed at a minimum distance from the scene of the accident. For road accidents in town this is about 50 metres, on country roads about 100 metres and on motorways about 150-200 metres. When setting up the warning triangle, account must also be taken of curves or differences in height. These may obstruct the view of the warning triangle or the accident scene. 

Tip: If you are not travelling alone but have other helpers, you can share the tasks with them.

4. Dialing the emergency number

The next step is to dial the emergency number. It is also important to remain calm when calling the emergency number. The more information you can give the emergency call centre, the quicker and more targeted professional first aid can arrive. You can interrupt the emergency call by dialling 112. An alternative to the emergency call is an emergency app such as our TarisApp. You can find more information here. If you dial the emergency call, the following questions are important:  

  • Where is the location of the accident?  
  • What exactly happened?  
  • What is the situation at the scene of the accident?  
  • How many people have been injured?    

But all the important questions are asked by the emergency call centre over the phone. In addition, the emergency centre can give advice on first aid measures over the phone if you are not sure.

5. Ask for help

If no one even notices the accident or refuses first aid, you should draw attention to yourself. Wave your arms, let them see that you need help. Because any further help can save lives. And you never know if you might attract the attention of trained medical staff. 

6. First aid measures

Emergency services can take 10 to 15 minutes to arrive. During this time, it is extremely important for the survival of the victim that first aid is administered. In doing so, particular attention should be paid to the following points:   

  • Bleeding wounds: If there are open, bleeding wounds on victims, they should be treated as quickly as possible. The most important thing is to stop the bleeding. A pressure bandage can be used to stop the bleeding. 
  • Check whether he is conscious: Are the victims responsive or is there a pulse? If they are conscious, you must try to calm them down. You can help by telling them that help is on the way and will arrive soon. Those affected should also be wrapped with the rescue blanket. Very important: the silver side must be downwards! This protects the victim from hypothermia. 
  • Is the victim unconscious? Then you should apply resuscitation measures immediately. To learn more about first aid and resuscitation measures, click here.   

Other articles:  

Sources and further links: 

  • https://www.malteser.de/aware/hilfreich/erste-hilfe-beim-autounfall-was-tun.html 
  • https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/de/home/statistiken/mobilitaet-verkehr/verkehrsinfrastruktur-fahrzeuge/fahrzeuge.html 

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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Mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration: What to watch out for!

In the best case, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation can save lives. Even today, many people do not know when and how to use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. In a first aid course, for example, you learn not only the theory, but also how to use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in practice. This is done, for example, with the help of exercises on a manikin. You have not attended a first aid course or have forgotten most of it? In this article we have summarised the most important information on mouth-to-mouth resuscitation for you.

When do you need mouth-to-mouth resuscitation?  

Basically, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is necessary when the victim stops breathing. However, only ventilating the victim is not enough. In addition to ventilation, cardiac massage must be applied. If the victim stops breathing, this is normally also a case of cardiac arrest. The cardiopulmonary circulation in the human body is interrupted and oxygen is no longer flowing into the body via the bloodstream.   

In the case of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, it is important to apply first aid as quickly as possible. If a person stops breathing, there is not much time before further consequential damage can occur. The more time that passes with the heart no longer beating and oxygen no longer pumping through the body, the more the body breaks down. If the body remains without oxygen for about 10 seconds, our brain begins to shut down most of its functions. The result is unconsciousness, as the body’s defensive reaction to the lack of oxygen. The body begins to use the remaining oxygen sparingly.   

From the 3rd minute onwards, the first nerve cells in the brain begin to break down. But from the 5th minute onwards, provided resuscitation is successful, severe consequential damage can occur in the brain region. This, in itself, has an impact on many other functions of our body, such as speaking or moving. The brain is therefore the most sensitive organ in our body when it comes to oxygen supply. Other organs in our body can withstand several hours without oxygen without suffering major damage.

Is mouth-to-mouth resuscitation sufficient?   

No! For successful resuscitation, the combination of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and cardiac massage is necessary. At first, ventilation only ensures that the body gets some oxygen again. But in the case of cardiac arrest, it is actually much more important to get the heart beating again. When the heart starts beating again, oxygen automatically enters the cardiopulmonary circulation again. The reverse is not the case.

How mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration works: Instructions 

To ensure a proper supply of breath, you can follow these steps:   

  • In the first step, lean your head back a little and point your chin upwards. This will help to clear the airway.   
  • In the next step, take the thumb and the index finger of the hand closer to the forehead and close the nose of the affected person with it.   
  • Then open the person’s mouth while keeping the chin pointing upwards.   
  • Then breathe in normally and immediately afterwards place your lips completely around the person’s mouth.   
  • Breathe out the inhaled air for about 1 second in the mouth so that the person’s chest rises a little.   
  • Then breathe in deeply again by turning the head to the side. In doing so, the victim’s chest should lower again. After inhaling, repeat the previous step by exhaling the inhaled air in the victim’s mouth.   

Combine with cardiac massage 

In addition to oxygenation by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, cardiac massage is also important. Only the combination of both measures can lead to successful resuscitation. You can find detailed instructions on resuscitation measures right here.   

What happens after resuscitation?   

Once breathing and a heartbeat are restored, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. How does this work? You can find out right here. With the stable lateral position, proper and stable breathing can be ensured, even if the affected person is not yet conscious. In addition to the stable side position, the affected person must be taken to hospital immediately. Then further damage and the cause of the cardiac arrest can be clarified.   

Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in Corona times  

Even in corona times, many people are dependent on fast and successful first aid from fellow human beings. But how do you behave when you have to avoid contact with other people? There are two options available to you. Option 1 is to put a tissue over the victim’s nose and mouth. This way, the risk of infection via droplet infection can be avoided as far as possible, while still ensuring sufficient oxygen supply.   

Those who do not dare to perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation can fall back on option 2 and omit it in case of doubt. Much more important in resuscitation is cardiac massage, which should get the heart beating again. Ventilation serves as an additional aid to bring about resuscitation. But this is not always the case. In first aid after drowning, the supply of oxygen via the respiratory system can be decisive. So you always have to decide depending on the situation. In most cases, however, you can do without mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.   

Note: Are you still unsure? Then download the TarisApp and ensure professional first aid in the TarisAppand ensure professional first aid in the vicinity of the accident site. Learn more about it right here.  

Further articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • https://www.drk.de/hilfe-in-deutschland/erste-hilfe/atmung/mund-zu-mund-beatmung/ 
  • https://www.herzstiftung.de/ihre-herzgesundheit/anzeichen-fuer-herzprobleme-erkennen/im-notfall/erste-hilfe-corona 

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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Traffic light scheme: Look, think and act!

An accident occurs and you have to give first aid. In most cases, many first aiders panic and are overwhelmed with the situation. This is mainly because most people have too little knowledge about first aid. For such cases, the traffic light scheme is intended to provide support. With the help of the traffic light system, relatively good first aid can be administered. Here you can find out everything you need to know about the traffic light system.

Traffic light pattern: Instructions 

The traffic light pattern is a good way to be prepared in an emergency. The basic rule in an emergency situation is: look, think and then act.  

With the help of the traffic light pattern, you can proceed as follows :   

1.  Look

  • and first get an overview of the emergency situation.  
  • What exactly has happened?  
  • Who is all involved in the situation?  
  • And above all: Who is affected by it?

2. Think

  • and try to think calmly and clearly.  
  • Rule out danger to those helping.  
  • Also rule out danger to other people in the immediate proximity. 
  • And above all: rule out danger to affected persons and victims.

3. Act

  • and protect yourself first, because your own safety comes first!   
  • Secure and mark the scene of the accident.   
  • if necessary, switch off any machines or similar equipment.  
  • Give first aid and alert people to your presence.

With this simple traffic light scheme, you can quickly gain an overview in an emergency and provide important first aid. It is especially advisable to regularly attend a first aid course and refresh your knowledge.
The traffic light scheme is only for general orientation and does not replace specialist knowledge for professional first aid. Prior knowledge is also very important when using a first aid kit. How do you use the contents of a first aid kit correctly? These and other questions are answered during such an important first aid course. 

When can the traffic light pattern be used?  

The traffic light scheme has been designed so that it can be used for almost all emergencies. First aiders can follow the traffic light scheme if they are insecure and provide first aid to the affected person. In addition, there are different first aid approaches for different emergencies. In the case of a heart attack, for example, there are differences in the application of first aid than in the case of  First aid for a stroke. Nevertheless, in case of doubt, it is always advisable to apply the traffic light scheme.   

In an emergency, affected persons are always dependent on first aid from other people. And the only wrong behaviour is not to give first aid. The sequence of the traffic light system is also very helpful in emergency situations. Because first you should put your own safety first, rather than putting yourself in danger as well. Only then can the next steps be taken. A lot can be done wrong when it comes to the sequence of first aid.

The Sample Method  

In addition to the traffic light method, the sample method can be used as a support. The sample method can be used to take an initial emergency history. An anamnesis basically takes place during a visit to the doctor. The doctor asks a variety of questions to find out the current state of knowledge about previous illnesses.   

An emergency medical history can be very important for further first aid in an emergency. Does the victim have allergies, previous illnesses or other injuries that are not visible at first glance? Until the arrival of the emergency services, the combination of traffic light and sample method can be a great help for affected persons.   
The sample method consists of the following:  

S – Symptoms: What symptoms does the affected person experience?

  • By asking various questions, other symptoms can be identified. In this way, further injuries can be identified or ruled out.   

A – Allergies: Are there any allergies affecting the victim?  

  • This is to determine whether the victim has any allergies and if so, which ones. It can be very important for the emergency services to have this information in advance.  

M – Medication: Does the victim take any medication?  

  • If the victim is taking medication, this information is very important for the emergency services. They can act faster and with better knowledge and initiate the right measures. This information is also very important for the administration of further medication. 

P – Patient history: What previous illnesses or previous accidents are known?

  • Knowing what previous illnesses the victim suffers from is important information for the emergency services. This way, these diseases can be checked and treated more quickly.    

L – Last meal: What food did the victim eat before the emergency?

  • The last meal is also important information for the rescue forces.   

E – Events before the accident: What happened before the accident?  

  • This question is very important, especially in the case of recurrent accidents. Have such accidents happened before or have there been similar accidents before?   

First aid with the TarisApp  

 For some years now, there have also been so-called emergency apps, which are supposed to contribute to a quick and good first aid in case of emergencies. With our TarisAppfor example, you can not only dial the emergency call via the mobile phone app, but also quickly and easily ask for further help.   

Even professionally trained medical first aiders in the immediate proximity are asked for help. This way, in an emergency, one can ensure fast and professional first aid for affected persons. In many cases, professional help comes much too late in an emergency, even though there may be a doctor or nurse nearby.   

Note: Did you know that it takes up to 15 minutes on average for the emergency services to arrive at the scene of an accident? In case of doubt, these 15 minutes can be the difference between life and death. With the TarisAppthese 15 minutes can be bridged with professional help.   

Further articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • https://flexikon.doccheck.com/de/SAMPLE-Schema 
  • http://www.erstehilfe.ch/notfall-was-tun/ampel-schema.html 

Bildnachweis: ©Unsplash 

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First Aid Training - Electric shock

First aid in case of electrocution: How to react correctly!

In our everyday lives, we now come across a variety of different sources of electricity. While many power sources are harmless, other power sources can be very dangerous for people. In the worst case, an electric shock can result in death. But what to do after an electric shock? We provide information on first aid in the event of electrocution.  

What happens in the body during an electric shock?  

A lot of energy flows through a human body, and electrical impulses are responsible for this. The human nervous system works by means of electrical signals. Among other things, this allows certain commands to be sent from our brain to our muscles. One of our most important muscles in the body, the heart, is also made to beat by certain electrical impulses. If electricity is produced and transmitted within the body, this is no problem for the body. But if an external source of electricity is added, it can be dangerous.  

If electricity comes to the body from outside, electrical impulses are amplified in the body and trigger various symptoms. The muscles begin to cramp or even twitch. Even a few milliamperes can be enough to impair the functions of the human body. For example, if you accidentally touch a weak power source, you usually get a short electric shock. This causes the body to flinch briefly. 

Possible causes 

Various sources of electricity can cause an electric shock. We have collected the most common sources of electricity with an electric shock potential:   

  • Defective electrical appliances  
  • Unsecured power sources (e.g. broken and open power cables)  
  • Working on power sources without specialist knowledge  
  • High-voltage power lines  
  • Lightning  
  • Accidents with electrical appliances   
  • and much more…  

When can an electric shock become dangerous?  

When an electric shock can be dangerous for people also depends on the source of the current. It all depends on the type and strength of the power source. It is very dangerous when the current passes through the heart. If this is the case, it can be life-threatening for the person concerned. Generally, with an alternating current source (e.g. from a socket), about 20 to 50 milliamperes are already enough to damage the heart. This can lead to cardiac arrhythmia or even cardiac arrest.   

For comparison: in a household socket with 230 volts, about 16,000 milliamperes (16 amperes) flow. So, it doesn’t take much for an electric shock to become life-threatening. Nevertheless, many power sources are fused and can thus protect against severe electric shocks.   

The first muscle cramps can occur at around 16 milliamperes. This can lead, for example, to the inability to remove the hand from the source of danger. Here, the rule also applies that the longer you are exposed to a power source, the more dangerous it can become for your body. This means that even a muscle cramp on the body can be very dangerous. The muscles around the lungs can also cramp and cause the affected person to have problems breathing. In the worst case, the affected person could suffocate.   

Regarding the strength of the power source, a basic distinction can be made between the low-voltage and high-voltage range. The low-voltage range refers to current sources of up to 1,000 volts. A high-voltage range refers to current sources of 1,000 volts or more. In the case of a low-voltage range, additional accidents to electrocution usually occur. For example, falling from a ladder after flinching due to an electric shock. High-voltage accidents, on the other hand, have much more severe consequences. For example, when people climb on trains and meet a high-voltage line. This can result in severe burns on the body or immediate death.

First aid in case of electric shock   

In the event of an electrical accident, the priority is always to ensure your own safety. This means: if you are a first aider for victims of an electric accident, your own safety comes first!
If you are affected by an electric shock yourself, there is not much you can do in the first place. If you were able to get away from the source of electricity, then you should immediately look for a doctor or dial the emergency number. 

Instructions 

If you give first aid to someone who has been electrocuted, you can follow these instructions: 

  • Be sure to dial 112 and describe the situation.   
  • Pay attention to your own safety! 
    In case of low-voltage accidents: Remove the fuse, switch off the appliance or pull out the mains plug. 
    In case of high-voltage accidents: keep a minimum distance of 20 m from the person affected. The area around the high voltage must first be secured before first aid measures can be initiated by medically trained personnel.   
  • Is the accident site secured and the affected person conscious? Then you can talk to the affected person and, if necessary, try to calm him down.   
  • Before touching the person, you should put on protective gloves.  
  • If there are open burns on the victim’s body, cover them carefully to prevent germs.   
  • The affected person is not conscious? Then place the affected person in the recovery position. Then keep checking the victim’s breathing and pulse.  
  • If there is no breathing and no pulse, carry out resuscitation measuresresuscitation measures immediately.   

In addition to first aid measures, you should also call for help. You can call for help very easily with the TarisApp emergency app, for example. With the TarisApp, you can not only dial the emergency call via app, but also request assistance from medically trained personnel in the vicinity. This can be particularly helpful in the event of an electrical accident, as many people are unsettled by the potential danger to themselves. Besides, it can take 15 minutes for the emergency services to arrive. And especially in the case of an electrical accident, every second counts. Learn more about the TarisApp right here.   

Further articles: 

Sources and further links:

  • https://www.drk.de/hilfe-in-deutschland/erste-hilfe/stromschlag/ 
  • https://www.dguv.de/medien/fb-erstehilfe/de/pdf/stromunfall-2016.pdf 
  • https://www.quarks.de/gesundheit/was-bei-einem-stromschlag-in-deinem-koerper-passiert/  

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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Resuscitation on the road

Damage after reanimation: What you should know!

Heart disease is the cause of slightly more than half of all out-of-hospital cardiovascular arrests. In the event of a cardiac arrest, it is possible to bring the victim back to life with the help of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). But what happens afterwards? Can consequential damage occur after resuscitation? We have taken a closer look at the consequences of resuscitation. 

In which situations is resuscitation necessary?  

Resuscitation, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is required in the event of cardiovascular arrest. Through resuscitation, a person’s cardiopulmonary circulation can be reactivated and thus revived. Various causes can lead to situations in which people suffer a cardiac arrest. In many cases, pre-existing conditions are responsible, some of which are previously undetected. But cardiac arrest can also occur in serious accidents or drowning.

What consequences can occur after resuscitation?  

The longer the victim’s heart does not beat and the longer the body is not supplied with oxygen, the greater the damage can be after resuscitation. After only 10 seconds without oxygen in the body, our brain begins to stop the most important functions. This has the effect of making you unconscious. The reason for this is that the nerve cells begin to use much less oxygen and to use it sparingly.   

After approximately 30 seconds, the so-called gasping respiration or respiratory arrest occurs. This is because gasping is not a sign that the victim is breathing on his or her own. On the contrary, gasping is a signal for nerve cell dysfunction. After about 3 minutes, our nerve cells in the brain slowly begin to die. From the 5th minute onwards, more severe damage can occur in the area of the brain, which is most evident as consequential damage after resuscitation. Unfortunately, the brain is the organ that cannot last long without oxygen. Other organs, on the other hand, can survive 30 minutes to several hours without oxygen.   

So it is clear that the first minutes after a cardiovascular arrest are crucial. The longer the affected person is without oxygen, the greater the consequential damage can be after resuscitation. The correct application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation can not only save lives, but also prevent further consequential damage. 

How to performe resuscitation correctly: Instructions  

If you find yourself in an emergency where a person suffers a cardiac arrest, you should perform resuscitation. This is done using cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For the instructions, we distinguish between two different area.   

Cardiac massage  

The aim of cardiac massage is to get the heart beating again. You can only do this if you follow the instructions for chest compressions correctly:   

  • First, kneel next to the affected person at about the level of the rib cage.   
  • Then place the heel of one hand on the centre of the chest.   
  • Then place the heel of the other hand on top of the first hand.   
  • Then you start the so-called cardiac massage. With your arms outstretched, place your own weight on the chest of the victim and begin to press down vertically 30 times to a depth of 6 cm.   
  • The frequency of chest compressions is important and should be between 100 and 120 beats per minute.   

Mouth-to-mouth   

In addition to cardiac massage, the aim of rescue breathing is to restore oxygen to the victim. This combination should ultimately succeed in resuscitating the victim.   

  • To administer oxygen, the victim’s head is leaned back and the chin is raised to expose the airway.   
  • Then take the index finger and thumb of the hand closer to the victim’s forehead and close the nose.   
  • Afterwards, the chin of the patient is raised and the mouth is opened.  
  • Now one breathes in normally and puts one’s own lips completely over the victim’s lips.  
  • Then blow out the inhaled air for about 1 second. The victim’s chest should rise slightly.   
  • Finally, turn your own head to the side to breathe in new air. The victim’s chest should lower again. Then repeat the previous step once more, for a total of 2 times.  

Especially important!    

  • Cardiac massage and breathing must be alternated. Start with cardiac massage (30x) and then switch to breathing (2x). Repeat this procedure until the rescuers arrive.   
  • If resuscitation was successful and the victim is breathing on his/her own again, place the victim in the recovery position.   

Emergency app for first aid   

Are you also unsure about the instructions for resuscitation? Then you are not alone in this. Many people do not want to do anything wrong due to uncertainty in an emergency situation and then hold back. Others, however, are unable to help due to a state of shock. But not giving first aid would be the only mistake you can make. To get further help, you can simply use an emergency app like our TarisApp.

With the TarisApp, you can make an emergency call immediately via an app on your mobile phone. On the other hand, you can use the TarisApp to ask for professional medical help in the area. Medically trained personnel in the neighbourhood will then receive a notification that an emergency is close by. This way, even if you are unsure, you can quickly arrange for the right measures to be taken. After all, did you know that it takes the emergency services an average of 15 minutes to arrive at the scene of an emergency? You can find out more about this right here. 

More articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • https://www.quarks.de/gesundheit/medizin/das-passiert-wenn-wir-keine-erste-hilfe-leisten/ 

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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First aid for gout attack: You should be aware of this!

When people complain of joint pain, it may be due to the metabolic disorder gout. The result of gout can then be a gout attack. But what exactly is a gout attack and what can you do about it? We will tell you about first aid for a gout attack.   

What exactly is a gout attack?   

Gout is a disease in which the metabolism in our body is not functioning properly. Normally, a metabolic process in our body produces uric acid. This allows certain substances, such as purines from food or stimulants, to be broken down. Purines are first converted into uric acid and then excreted through the kidneys. This natural process can be disturbed by gout. In gout, the uric acid cannot be excreted sufficiently as usual. Instead, the uric acid is deposited in the body and can cause pain or inflammation in the joints. This can also lead to other diseases.   

A gout attack is usually an acute disorder in our body. This means that the pain is not permanent, but is only triggered during a certain period of time. Nevertheless, gout attacks can also become chronic. For example, a gout attack can develop if you do not change your diet despite having gout. If you continue to eat fatty foods or drink a lot of alcohol, acute gout attacks are not uncommon. The metabolic disorder persists and you continue to suffer unpleasant pain in the joints or even in the kidneys.   

Gout is very strongly dependent on diet and can thus trigger gout attacks more often or less often. Purines are mainly found in meat, fish and alcohol. Beer in particular contains many purines, while wine contains fewer. Nevertheless, due to its higher alcohol content, wine can also be dangerous for gout sufferers. But other foods also contain purines in higher amounts. So if we take in a lot of purines through food, the occurrence of a gout attack is very likely.     

Why can a gout attack be dangerous?  

A gout attack can be dangerous because it can cause symptoms of variable severity. In addition, regular gout attacks can lead to other secondary diseases. If gout attacks occur again and again, you usually still do not have your diet under control. If gout attacks are ignored, they can lead to severe joint inflammation or kidney problems.   

If gout attacks occur repeatedly, you should have yourself examined by a doctor. You should trust the advice of a doctor who specialises in gout. If you do not feel informed enough after the first consultation, a second opinion is always recommended.   

The doctor can diagnose gout with the help of blood and urine tests. If gout is advanced, deposits can also be seen on X-rays. To be on the safe side, some doctors also take some joint fluid. After diagnosing gout, a doctor can then prescribe the right treatment for the gout attacks. In addition to dietary changes, gout can also be treated with medication.   

Symptoms of a gout attack   

A typical symptom of a gout attack is that it occurs mainly at night. The first thing that is usually affected is the big toe, which begins to swell up. The toe also turns red and feels very hot. The pain in the inflamed area is enormous. Slight movements or touching can cause incredible pain. Other joints, such as the ankle or knee, are rarely affected by a gout attack. In the worst case, a gout attack can last up to 2 weeks without treatment.   

Causes of a gout attack   

As we already know, a gout attack can be caused by the increased consumption of purines. However, apart from a poor and unbalanced diet, other factors can also contribute to a gout attack.   

 

Other factors include:  

  • Not being active enough  
  • High alcohol consumption   
  • Food with a high purine content   
  • Too much consumption of fructose via e.g.: Juices   
  • Being overweight   

First aid for gout attacks: Tips   

The question that those affected naturally ask themselves is how to treat a gout attack quickly and, above all, how to relieve the severe pain. Many patients rely on homeopathic remedies to relieve the pain and reduce inflammation. Physiotherapy and acupuncture are also said to help against gout attacks. The only problem with gout attacks is that there is no real first aid. This is because the pain and inflammation cannot heal quickly. Therefore, it is important to help your body in the long term:    

  • Change your diet and avoid foods containing purine.   
  • Above all, eat a low-fat diet and avoid foods such as meat, sausage and fatty fish. In addition, meals should be prepared with low calories.   
  • Refrain from excessive alcohol consumption. This does not mean that you must abstain from alcohol completely. However, you should consume alcohol to the best of your knowledge and conscience.   
  • Drink plenty of water throughout the day, ideally between 2 and 3 litres. If you also do sports and sweat a lot, you should drink even more water.   
  • Make sure you work out regularly or do sports. But it doesn’t always have to be strenuous and energy-sapping sports. Regular walking, cycling or even hiking can help.   
  • If you are overweight, you should try to lose weight and reduce your body weight. But here, too, you should approach weight loss with a lot of calm. Losing body weight takes time.   

Further articles: 

Sources and further links: 

  • https://www.deutsche-familienversicherung.de/krankenhauszusatzversicherung/ratgeber/artikel/gicht-ursachen-symptome-behandlung/ 
  • https://www.tk.de/techniker/gesundheit-und-medizin/behandlungen-und-medizin/orthopaedische-erkrankungen/wohlstandserkrankung-gicht-2019132 

Bildnachweis: ©Envatoelements 

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Correct behaviour in case of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia!

Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia can be a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Too rarely do people ask themselves how they can be helped in the event of hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia. After all, in an emergency, those affected need all the help they can get. Here you can find out more about how best to act in the event of a hyperglycaemic and/or hypoglycaemic crisis.   

What are hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia exactly? 

To explain it in a very simple way: hyperglycaemia is a high level of sugar in the blood. Hypoglycaemia, on the other hand, is the opposite, i.e., a low level of sugar in the blood. Hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia can be caused by diabetes, such as diabetes mellitus. In medicine, this is referred to as hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) and hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar).    

In principle, a blood sugar level that is slightly too high or too low is nothing unusual. Slight differences in blood sugar are normal. Differences can also occur in completely healthy people. Blood sugar levels always depend on food intake. Blood sugar levels can vary due to a wide variety of foods.   

A stable blood glucose level is approximately between 3 and 8 mmol/l. mmol (millimoles per litre) is the standard unit for measuring blood glucose levels. In cases of hyperglycaemia, the level will naturally be above 8 mmol/l. This is usually caused by insulin. This is usually caused by insulin. The cause is usually a lack of insulin. If insulin cannot be produced in the body, our organs cannot use the sugar and it tends to accumulate. In cases of hypoglycaemia, the value is below 3 mmol/l. 

Symptoms     

There are differences to be taken into account between the typical symptoms of hyperglycaemia and those of hypoglycaemia. We have summarised these differences below. 

Hyperglycaemia  

Basically, the symptoms of hyperglycaemia are very gradual. This means that their duration can vary from several hours to days even.   

These are the most common symptoms of hyperglycaemia: 

  • Lack of energy  
  • nausea  
  • Vomiting  
  • Abdominal cramps  
  • Strong desire to urinate   
  • Severe thirst  
  • Fatigue   
  • Acetone smell in the air   

The smell of acetone is a slightly acidic fruit odour in the breath. This is also a very typical symptom of hyperglycaemic coma, which can occur especially in type 1 diabetics. Type 2 diabetics, on the other hand, mainly experience high fluid loss. Other symptoms are barely noticeable in type 2 diabetes.  

Note: If you experience the above symptoms, you may develop a diabetic coma. If this is the case, first aid should be given quickly, and the emergency number should be called immediately. With our TarisApp, you can not only dial the emergency number, but also request further professional help in the area. You can find out more about the app right here. 

Hypoglycaemia     

The first symptoms of hypoglycaemia occur as soon as the blood glucose level falls below 3 mmol/l. The most common symptoms of hypoglycaemia are a low blood glucose level, which can cause a heart attack.   

The most common symptoms of hypoglycaemia include:   

  • Sweating  
  • Tremors  
  • Problems concentrating  
  • Uncontrolled sense of hunger  
  • Increased heart rate 

The lower the blood sugar level, the more easily symptoms related to neurological problems can occur.  For example, visual function may be affected, or hemiplegia may occur. Both diabetics and their relatives should familiarise themselves with the symptoms. If affected persons are unable to act alone, they depend on the help of others. 

Correct behaviour in case of hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic crises: first aid 

Knowing what to do in case of hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic crises can be vital in the event of an emergency. It all depends on the symptoms that occur and therefore, there may be differences between each case in the application of first aid.

Hyperglycaemia   

If a hyperglycaemic crisis occurs, the body requires insulin. Only the administration of insulin can bring the amount of sugar in the blood back to normal and help the affected person. If the person affected by the crisis is still conscious, insulin can be administered. This can be given in different ways: by syringe or medication, for example. Ask the person how insulin is usually administrated.   

You can always follow these instructions:   

  • Dial the emergency number.  
  • Check if the person is conscious.  
  • Is the person conscious? Try to calm the person down and then administer insulin.   
  • Is the person unconscious? Put the person in a resting position (lying on their side) and monitor their breathing and pulse. 

Hypoglycaemia    

If a hypoglycaemic crisis occurs, be aware that the body needs sugary food or drink, which should only be given when the person is conscious. Anything that contains glucose is fine: for example, a chocolate bar or a cola. Sugary food can quickly restore energy to the body and allow the person affected by the crisis to regain strength 

In case of hypoglycaemia, you can follow these instructions:  

  • Dial the emergency number.  
  • Check if the person is conscious.  
  • Is the person conscious? Then provide the affected person with sugary food.     
  • Is the person unconscious? Put the person in a resting position (lying on their side) and monitor their breathing and pulse. However, the person can also be helped with a syringe of glucagon, which they should ideally carry with them. Glucagon should be injected into the upper arm, thigh or buttocks of the person suffering from the crisis. Glucagon forces the liver to rapidly release sugar reserves. 

Note: As a general principle, diabetics are advised to always carry a diabetic card with them, so that they can be identified as diabetic in an emergency and enable first aiders to implement the correct first aid measures. If you are diabetic and lose consciousness, you cannot tell anyone that you are. This information can mean the difference between life and death in an emergency.   

Additional articles: 

Sources and other Links:

  • https://www.haufe.de/arbeitsschutz/arbeitsschutz-office-professional/erste-hilfe-365-diabetische-notfaelle_idesk_PI13633_HI1479670.html 
  • https://www.tk.de/techniker/gesundheit-und-medizin/behandlungen-und-medizin/diabetes/tk-plus-bei-diabetes-mellitus/was-ist-im-notfall-zu-tun-2013644 

Picture credits: ©Envatoelements 

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